FLOUR AND BREAD QUALITY OF SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS(Triticum aestivum L.) SOWN AT FACULTATIVE AND SPRING SOWING DATES
Background. In an integrated wheat production, spring wheat provides a higher concentration of protein in the grain that affects the increase of wet gluten, which in turn may cause a greater baking value of flour obtained from this form of wheat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a sowing date (facultative vs. spring) on the quality of flour and bread coming from various spring wheat cultivars.
Material and methods. In a field experiment carried out in the years 2012â€“2014, the effect of late autumn sowing date of four spring wheat cultivars on the flour and bread qualities without and with spelt additions was investigated. The particular measurements included: flour extract (flour yield), the content of mineral compounds in the form of ash determined according to PN-ISO 2171, protein content in flour according to ICC 105/2, water absorption of flour using Infratec 1241 Grain Analyzer (FOSS), test baking method â€“ simulating the process in production conditions.
Results. The average values for flour yield was 69.2-70.1%. The highest protein content in flour at both sowing times was obtained from the cultivar 'Bombona' – at 117.5 g·kg-1 DM for facultative, and 146.3 g·kg-1 DM for spring sowing. The volume of bread from the flour of 'Monsun' and 'Tybalt' sown in spring was about 30–50 cm3 higher than from the flour from the facultative sowing time. The weight of the loaves, however, had the opposite tendency, because those from flour from autumn crops were about 5.0 g heavier.
Conclusion. Among the tested cultivars, 'Bombona', 'Monsun' and 'Ostka Smolicka' were characterized by significantly higher water absorption of flour. The facultative sowing date resulted in a significantly less protein content in flour. Autumn sowing was favored to achieve the best result of the bread weight, while the addition of spelt bran to wheat flour caused a reduction in the bread volume. The greatest taste was obtained by baking from flour of 'Bombona' sown in March.